1. On which of the following planets water cycle is available ?
(1) Jupiter (2) Earth
(3) Mars (4) Venus

2. The asteroids revolve round the
Sun in between :
(1) Earth and Mars
(2) Mars and Jupiter
(3) Jupiter and Saturn
(4) Saturn and Uranus

3. Which of the following is called
the twin of the earth ?
(1) Neptune (2) Venus
(3) Mars (4) Saturn

4. Which amidst the following planets has its orbit closest to Sun ?
(1) Venus (2) Mars
(3) Jupiter (4) Uranus

5. The light from the Sun reaches
the Earth in about—
(1) 8 seconds (2) 8 minutes
(3) 10 seconds (4) 10 minutes

6. The surface temperature of the
sun is estimated as
(1) 6000 °C (2) 12000 °C
(3) 18000 °C (4) 24000 °C

7. Which one of the following planets has no moon?
(1) Mars (2) Neptune
(3) Mercury (4) Pluto

8. Which one of the following is
called a red planet ?
(1) Venus (2) Mercury
(3) Mars (4) Jupiter

9. Brightest planet in our solar system is
(1) Venus (2) Mercury
(3) Mars (4) Jupiter

10. The Milky Way Galaxy was first
observed by
(1) Galileo
(2) Maarten Schmidt
(3) Marconi
(4) Newton

Answers: 1. (2) 2. (2) 3. (2) 4. (1)
5. (2) 6. (1) 7. (3) 8. (3)
9. (1) 10. (1)


1. (2) The water cycle, also known as the hydrological
cycle or H2O cycle, describes the continuous movement
of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.
Although the balance of water on Earth remains fairly
constant over time, individual water molecules can
come and go, in and out of the atmosphere. The water
moves from one reservoir to another, such as from
river to ocean, or from the ocean to the atmosphere,
by the physical processes of evaporation,
condensation, precipitation, infiltration, runoff, and
subsurface flow. In so doing, the water goes through
different phases: liquid, solid (ice), and gas (vapor).

2. (2) Asteroids, sometimes called minor planets, are small,
rocky fragments left over from the formation of our
solar system about 4.6 billion years ago. Most of this
ancient space rubble can be found orbiting the sun
between Mars and Jupiter. Asteroids range in size from
Ceres, about 952 km (592 miles) in diameter, to bodies
that are less than 1 km across. The total mass of all
the asteroids is less than that of Earth’s Moon.

3. (2) Venus is the second planet from the sun and a
close neighbor to the earth. It was named after the
Roman Goddess of Beauty. Venus is usually one the
brightest objects in the sky, which might be the reason
it got its name. It is quite similar to the planet earth
mainly in its size and a few other characteristics which
is why it is often considered the Earth’s twin. However,
surface conditions are not nearly the same making it
a quite inhospitable environment.

4. (1) Venus is the brightest planet in our sky and can
sometimes be seen with the naked eye if we know
where to look. It is the solar system’s brightest planet
— yellow clouds of sulfuric acid reflect the sun’s light
brightly and has its orbit closest to sun but only next
to mercury.

5. (2) Light travels at 186,000 miles a second at the Earth
is 93 million miles to Sun on average. This works out
as 8.33 minutes for light from the Sun to reach Earth.
On average, it takes energy between 10,000 and
170,000 years to leave the sun’s interior and then be
emitted from the surface as light. Sunlight, in the
broad sense, is the total frequency spectrum of
electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun,
particularly infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light. On
Earth, sunlight is filtered through the Earth’s
atmosphere, and is obvious as daylight when the Sun
is above the horizon.

6. (1) The surface of the sun is called the photosphere.
The photosphere is 340 miles thick and it’s temperature
s range from 5,500°C to 6,000°C. It has dark spots
called sunspots which are the only solar activity
observable by the naked eye.

7. (3) Mercury and Venus are the only two recognized
planets in our solar system without moons. However,
there are many, many planets in the universe and a
significant portion of these, if our solar system is
assumed representative of at least a significant portion
of the universe’s planetary systems likely have no

8. (3) Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the
second smallest planet in the Solar System. Named
after the Roman god of war, it is often described as
the “Red Planet”, as the iron oxide prevalent on its
surface gives it a reddish appearance. Mars is a
terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having
surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters
of the Moon and the volcanoes, valleys, deserts, and
polar ice caps of Earth.
9. (1) Venus has the highest albedo of any planet in our

solar system. Venus is so bright partly because it
reflects over 70 per cent of sunlight striking it. It owes
its reflective ability to the fact that it’s blanketed with
clouds. Sunlight bouncing from these clouds is what
makes Venus so bright.

10. (1) The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our solar
system. This name derives from its appearance as a
dim “milky” glowing band arching across the night sky,
in which the naked eye cannot distinguish individual
stars. Observational evidence for the Milky Way being
made up of distant stars first came when Galileo
pointed his telescope towards the Milky Way, observing
a large amount of faint stars.

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1. A federal structure for India was
first put forward by the :
(1) Act of 1909 (2) Act of 1919
(3) Act of 1935 (4) Act of 1947

2. Which of the following exercised
the most profound influence in
framing the Indian Constitution?
(1) British Constitution
(2) US Constitution
(3) Irish Constitution
(4) The Government of India Act,

3. How does the Constitution of India
describe India as?
(1) A federation of States and
Union Territories
(2) A Union of States
(3) Bharatvarsh
(4) A federated nation

4. The system of judicial review
originated in
(1) India (2) Gemany
(3) Russia (4) U.S.A.

5. Preventive detention means–
(1) detention for interrogation
(2) detention after interrogation
(3) detention without interrogation
(4) detention for cognisable

6. What was the basis for
constituting the Constituent
Assembly of India ?
(1) The Resolution of the Indian
National Congress
(2) The Cabinet Mission Plan,
(3) The Indian Independence Act,
(4) The resolutions of the
Provincial/State Legislatures of
the Dominion of India

7. From the Constitution of which
country the provision of
Federation was borrowed while
framing the Constitution of
India ?
(1) USA (2) UK
(3) Canada (4) Switzerland

8. Who among the following was not
a member of the Consti-tuent
Assembly established in July
1946 ?
(1) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(2) K M Munshi
(3) Mahatma Gandhi
(4) Abul Kalam Azad

9. Who was the Chairman of the
Drafting Committee of the
Constitution ?
(1) J. B. Kripalani
(2) Rajendra Prasad
(3) J. L. Nehru
(4) B. R. Ambedkar

10. India is a republic because—
(1) it is democratic country
(2) It is a parliamentary
(3) the head of the state is elected
for a definite period
(4) All of these

Answers: 1. (3) 2. (4) 3. (2) 4. (4)
5. (3) 6. (2) 7. (3) 8. (3)
9. (4) 10. (3)


1. (3) The Government of India Act 1935, the voluminous
and final constitutional effort at governing British
India, articulated three major goals: establishing a
loose federal structure, achieving provincial autonomy,
and safeguarding minority interests through separate
electorates. The federal provisions, intended to unite
princely states and British India at the centre, were
not implemented because of ambiguities in
safeguarding the existing privileges of princes. In
February 1937, however, provincial autonomy became
a reality when elections were held.

2. (4) The most profound influence was exercised by
the Government of India Act of 1935. Such features
as the federal scheme, office of governor, power of
federal judiciary, emergency powers etc were drawn
from this Act. The British practice influenced the
lawmaking procedures, rule of law, system of single
citizenship, besides, of course, the model of a
parliamentary government. The US Constitution
inspired details on the independence of judiciary,
judicial review, fundamental rights, and the removal
of Supreme Court and High Court judges. The Irish
Constitution was the source of the Directive
Principles, method of Presidential elections, and the
nomination of members of Rajya Sabha by the

3. (2) With its adoption, the Union of India officially
became the modern and contemporary Republic of
India and it replaced the Government of India Act
1935 as the country’s fundamental governing
document. The Constitution declares India to be a
sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic,
assuring its citizens of justice, equality, and liberty,
and endeavours to promote fraternity among them.

4. (4) Judicial review is the doctrine under which
legislative and executive actions are subject to review
(and possible invalidation) by the judiciary. It is an
example of the separation of powers in a modern
governmental system (where the judiciary is one of
three branches of government). Is is one of the main
characteristics of government in the Republic of the
United States. In the United States, federal and state
courts (at all levels, both appellate and trial) are able
to review and declare the “constitutionality”, or
agreement with the Constitution (or lack there of) of
legislation that is relevant to any case properly within
their jurisdiction. In American legal language, “judicial
review” refers primarily to the adjudication of
constitutionality of statutes, especially by the Supreme
Court of the United States.

5. (3) Preventive detention is an imprisonment that is
putatively justified for non-punitive purposes. In
contrast to this, under preventive detention the
government can imprison a person for some time
without a criminal charge. It means that if the
government feels that a person being at liberty can
be a threat to the law and order or the unity and
integrity of the nation, it can detain or arrest that
person to prevent him from doing this possible harm

6. (2) The Constituent Assembly of India was elected to
write the Constitution of India. The Constituent
Assembly was set up while India was still under
British rule, following negotiations between Indian
leaders and members of the 1946 Cabinet Mission
to India from the United Kingdom. The Assembly
members were elected to it indirectly by the members
of the individual provincial legislative assemblies, and
initially included representatives for those provinces
which came to form part of Pakistan, some of which
are now within Bangladesh.

7. (3) Though the basic features of Indian Constitution
are based on the Government of India Act, 1935, it
has many features which were borrowed from many
foreign constitutions. It was from the Canadian
Constitution that India borrowed a quasi-federal form
of government (a federal system with a strong central
government) and the idea of Residual Powers.

8. (3) The Constituent Assembly of India was elected to
write the Constitution of India. Some of its prominent
members were Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Maulana
Abul Kalam Azad, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Acharya
J.B. Kriplani, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Smt. Sarojini
Naidu, Shri Hare-Krushna Mahatab, Pandit Govind
Ballabh Pant, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, Shri Sarat Chandra
Bose, Shri C. Rajagopalachari and Shri M. Asaf Ali.

9. (4) On 29 August, 1947, the Drafting Committee was
appointed, with Dr B. R. Ambedkar as the Chairman
along with six other members assisted by a
constitutional advisor. These members were
Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi (K M Munshi, Ex- Home
Minister, Bombay), Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer (ExAdvocate General, Madras State), N Gopalaswami
Ayengar (Ex-Prime Minister, J&K and later member
of Nehru Cabinet), B L Mitter (Ex-Advocate General,
India), Md. Saadullah (Ex- Chief Minister of Assam,
Muslim League member) and D P Khaitan (Scion of
Khaitan Business family and a renowned lawyer). The
constitutional advisor was Sir Benegal Narsing Rau
(who became First Indian Judge in International Court
of Justice, 1950–54).

10. (3) India is a republic because India elects its supreme
head. It is called a republic because of the applicable
definition of a republic: a form of government in which
representatives are entitled to act on behalf of the
people whom they represent.

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Bihar Public Service Commission Indian Art And Culture Questions

1. In which of the following dialects
Kabir wrote ?
(1) Avadhi (2) Bhojpuri
(3) Brijbhasa (4) Maithili

2. Where is “Pushkar Fair” held ?
(1) Jodhpur (2) Ajmer
(3) Jaipur (4) Udaipur

3. Which of the following is called
the storehouse of world-art collections ?
(1) National Archives of India
(2) National Museum
(3) National Modren Art Gallery
(4) Salarjung Museum

4. Who introduced the famous Persian Festival of Nauroz ?
(1) Alauddin Khalji
(2) Iltutmish
(3) Firoz Tughlaq
(4) Balban

5. Which of the following is a famous
Assamese festival ?
(1) Makar Sakranti
(2) Yugadi
(3) Onam
(4) Rongali Bihu

6. Which language is spoken by the
people of Lakshadweep?
(1) Malayalam (2) Kannada
(3) Tamil (4) Telugu

7. In which State is the religious
festival ‘Ganesh Chaturthi’ Celebrated with gusto ?
(1) Rajasthan
(2) Gujarat
(3) Maharashtra
(4) Madhya Pradesh

8. Which of the following language
has been given the status of classical language by Central Government?
(1) Gujarati (2) Tamil
(3) Marathi (4) Malayalam

9. ‘Rath Yatra’ at Puri is celebrated
in honour of
(1) Lord Rama
(2) Lord Shiva
(3) Lord Jagannath
(4) Lord Vishnu

10. The most popular festival in Tamil
Nadu is :
(1) Gudipadwa (2) Onam
(3) Bihu (4) Pongal

Answers: 1. (1) 2. (2) 3. (4) 4. (4)
5. (4) 6. (1) 7. (3) 8. (2)
9. (3) 10. (4)


1. (1) Kabir, being illiterate, expressed his poems orally
in vernacular Hindi, borrowing from various dialects
including Avadhi, Braj, and Bhojpuri. His verses often
began with some strongly worded insult to get the
attention of passers-by. Kabir has enjoyed a revival of
popularity over the past half century as arguably the
most accessible and understandable of the Indian
saints, with a special influence over spiritual traditions
such as those of Sant Mat, Garib Das and Radha

2. (2) The Pushkar Fair, or Pushkar ka Mela, is the annual
five-day camel and livestock fair, held in the town of
Pushkar in the state of Rajasthan, India. It is one of
the world’s largest camel fairs, and apart from buying
and selling of livestock it has become an important
tourist attraction and its highlights have become
competitions such as the “matka phod”, “longest
moustache”, and “bridal competition” are the main
draws for this fair which attracts thousands of tourists.
Pushkar is a town in the Ajmer district. Pushkar is
one of the oldest existing cities of India. It lies on the
shore of Pushkar Lake. The date of its actual origin is
not known, but legend associates Lord Brahma with
its creation.

3. (4) The Salar Jung Museum is an art museum located
at Darushifa, on the southern bank of the Musi River
in the city of Hyderabad. It is the third largest museum
in India housing the biggest one-man collections of
antiques in the world. It is well known throughout
India for its prized collections belonging to different
civilizations dating back to the 1st century. Nawab
Mir Yousuf Ali Khan Salar Jung III (1889–1949), former
Prime Minister of the seventh Nizam of Hyderabad,
spent a substantial amount of his income over thirty
five years to make this priceless collection, his life’s

4. (4) Balban’s conception of kingship was similar to that
of the theory of divine right of kings. He cast a halo of
superiority round monarchy. He introduced the system
of Nauroz to add to the dignity of his court.

5. (4) Bihu denotes a set of three different cultural festivals
of Assam. In a year there are three Bihu festivals in
Assam – in the months of Bohaag (Baisakh, the middle
of April), Maagh (the middle of January), and Kaati
(Kartik, the middle of October). The most important
and colourful of the three Bihu festival is the Spring
festival “Bohag Bihu” or Rongali Bihu celebrated in
the middle of April. This is also the beginning of the
agricultural season.
6. (1) The islanders are ethnically similar to the Malayali
people of the nearest Indian state of Kerala. Most of
the population speaks Malayalam with Mahi being the
most spoken language in Minicoy island.

7. (3) ‘Ganesha Chaturthi is the Hindu festival celebrated
on the birthday (rebirth) of Lord Ganesha, the son of
Shiva and Parvati. While celebrated all over India, it is
most elaborate in Maharashtra, Goa, Andhra Pradesh,
Karnataka, Orissa and Chhattisgarh.

8. (2) In 2004, the Government of India declared that
languages that met certain requirements could be
accorded the status of a “Classical Language in India”.
Languages so far declared to be Classical are Tamil
(in 2004), Sanskrit (in 2005), Kannada and Telugu (in

9. (3) Ratha Yatra is a huge Hindu festival associated
with Lord Jagannath held at Puri in the state of Odisha.
This annual festival is celebrated on Ashad Shukla
Dwitiya (second day in bright fortnight of Ashad

10. (4) The festivals of Tamil Nadu are : Pongal, Jallikattu,
Chithirai and Adipperukku.

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SSC CGL World History Questions

1. When did China start the Civil Services Examinations ?
(1) 6 A.D (2) 1905
(3) 1920 (4) 1949

2. Who was the first Calipha
(1) Sulaiman, the Great
(2) Abu Bakr
(3) Iman Hussain
(4) Constantine

3. In which country is Karabla, the
holy city of Shia Muslims
located ?
(1) Iran (2) Iraq
(3) Jordan (4) Syria

4. The city of “Tashkent” is located in
(1) Uzbekistan (2) Kazakhstan
(3) Russia (4) Kyrgystan

5. Independence movement of Vietnam was headed by
(1) Ngo Dinh Diem
(2) Zhou Enlai
(3) Pol Pot
(4) Ho Chi Minh

6. Which one country is still governed by a monarch ?
(1) Afghanistan
(2) Iran
(3) Iraq
(4) Saudi Arabia

7. Japan’s Parliament is known as
(1) Diet (2) Dail
(3) Yuan (4) Shora
(SSC Section Officer (Audit)
Exam. 30.11.2008)
8. The currency of Thailand is
(1) Bhat (2) Rupiah
(3) Yuan (4) Yen

9. 1911 Revolution of China resulted
(1) Establishment of a Republic
(2) Reudalism
(3) Democracy
(4) Increased problems of people

10. East Timor, in Indonesian Archipelago, was the former colony of
(1) Dutch (2) English
(3) French (4) Portuguese

Answers: 1. (1) 2. (2) 3. (2) 4. (1)
5. (4) 6. (4) 7. (1) 8. (1)
9. (1) 10. (4)


1. (1) One of the oldest examples of a civil service based
on meritocracy is the Imperial bureaucracy of China,
which can be traced as far back as the Qin Dynasty
(221–207 BC). During the Han Dynasty (202 BC–220
AD) the xiaolian system of recommendation by
superiors for appointments to office was established.
The civil service recruitment method and educational
system employed from the Han dynasty (206 B.C.–
A.D. 220) was abolished by the Ch’ing dowager
empress Tz’u Hsi in 1905 under pressure from leading
Chinese intellectuals. The Sui dynasty (581–618)
adopted this Han system and applied it in a much
more systematic way as a method of official

2. (2) Abu Bakr was a senior companion (Sahabi) and
the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632–634
CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following
Muhammad’s death. As Caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded
to the political and administrative functions previously
exercised by Muhammad, since the religious function
and authority of prophethood ended with Muhammad’s
death according to Islam. He was called Al-Siddiq (The

3. (2) Karbala is a city in Iraq, southwest of Baghdad.
The city, best known as the location of the Battle of
Karbala (680), is amongst the holiest cities for Shia
Muslims after Mecca and Medina. It is home to the
Imam Hussein Shrine. Karbala is famous as the site
of the martyrdom of Hussein ibn Ali (Imam Hussein),
and commemorations are held by millions of Shias
annually to remember it. Karbala is considered sacred
by all Shias.

4. (1) Tashkent is the capital of Uzbekistan and of the
Tashkent Province. This historic city is associated
with the Tashkent Declaration of 10 January, 1966
which was a peace agreement between India and
Pakistan after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. The
Soviets, represented by Premier Alexei Kosygin
moderated between Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur
Shastri and Pakistani President Muhammad Ayub
Khan. The Tashkent conference, under UN, American
and Russian pressure, compelled Pakistan and India
to restore their national boundary and the 1949
ceasefire line in Kashmir. This eventually led to
dissatisfaction and protests against the Ayub Khan

5. (4) Ho Chi Minh was a Vietnamese Communist dictator
who was prime minister (1945–1955) and president
(1945–1969) of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
(North Vietnam). He was a key figure in the foundation
of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945, as
well as the People’s Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the
Viet Cong (NLF or VC) during the Vietnam War. He
led the Viet Minh independence movement from 1941
onward, establishing the communist-ruled Democratic
Republic of Vietnam in 1945 and defeating the French
Union in 1954 at battle of Dien Bien Phu.

6. (4) Saudi Arabia, officially known as the Kingdom of
Saudi Arabia, is an absolute monarchy, although,
according to the Basic Law of Saudi Arabia adopted
by royal decree in 1992, the king must comply with
Sharia (that is, Islamic law) and the Quran. The Quran
and the Sunnah (the traditions of Muhammad) are
declared to be the country’s constitution, but no written
modern constitution has ever been written for Saudi
Arabia, and Saudi Arabia remains the only Arab Nation
where no national elections have ever taken place,
since its creation. No political parties or national
elections are permitted.

7. (1) The Diet is Japan’s bicameral legislature. It is
composed of a lower house, called the House of
Representatives, and an upper house, called the House
of Councillors. Both houses of the Diet are directly
elected under a parallel voting system. In addition to
passing laws, the Diet is formally responsible for
selecting the Prime Minister. The Diet was first
convened as the Imperial Diet in 1889 as a result of
adopting the Meiji constitution. The Diet took its
current form in 1947 upon the adoption of the postwar
constitution and is considered by the Constitution to
be the highest organ of state power.

8. (1) Baht is the currency of Thailand. It is subdivided
into 100 satang. The issuance of currency is the
responsibility of the Bank of Thailand.

9. (1) The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the
Revolution of 1911 or the Chinese Revolution,
overthrew China’s last imperial dynasty, the Qing
Dynasty, and established the Republic of China. The
revolution was named Xinhai because it occurred in
1911, the year of the Xinhai stem-branch in the
sexagenary cycle of the Chinese calendar. January 1,
1912, was set as the first day of the First Year of the
Republic of China.

10. (4) East Timor was colonized by Portugal in the 16th
century, and was known as Portuguese Timor until
Portugal’s decolonization of the country. In late 1975,
East Timor declared its independence, but later that
year was invaded and occupied by Indonesia and was
declared Indonesia’s 27th province the following year.
In 1999, following the United Nations-sponsored act
of self-determination, Indonesia relinquished control
of the territory and East Timor became the first new
sovereign state of the 21st century on May 20, 2002.

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BPSC Ancient History Questions

1. Which among the following chronology is correct regarding four
‘samvatas’ ?
(1) Gupta–Gregorian–Hizri–Saka
(2) Gregorian–Saka–Hizri–Gupta
(3) Saka–Gregorian–Hizri–Gupta
(4) Hizri–Gupta–Gregorian–Saka

2. The home of Gargi, Maitrey, and
Kapila was at
(1) Vidisha (2) Ujjain
(3) Pataliputra (4) Mithila

3. Which area of India was known
as Avantika in ancient times ?
(1) Avadh (2) Ruhelkhand
(3) Bundelkhand (4) Malwa

4. The Social System of the Harappans was :
(1) Fairly egalitarian
(2) Slave-Labour based
(3) Colour (Varna) based
(4) Caste based

5. Which of the following Vedas provides information about the civilisation of the Early Vedic Age?
(1) Rig-veda (2) Yajur-veda
(3) Atharva-veda (4) Sama-veda

6. The university which became famous in the post-Gupta Era was :
(1) Kanchi (2) Taxila
(3) Nalanda (4) Vallabhi

7. Banabhatta was the court poet
of which emperor ?
(1) Vikramaditya
(2) Kumaragupta
(3) Harshavardhana
(4) Kanishka

8. The first Indian ruler, who established the supremacy of Indian
Navy in the Arabian Sea was :
(1) Rajaraja I (2) Rajendra I
(3) Rajadhiraja I (4) Kulottunga I

9. Which statement on the Harappan Civilisation is correct?
(1) Horse sacrifice was known
to them.
(2) Cow was sacred to them.
(3) ‘Pashupati’ was venerated by
(4) The culture was not generally

10. The First Tirthankara of the
Jains was :
(1) Arishtanemi (2) Parshvanath
(3) Ajitanath (4) Rishabha

Answers: 1. (1) 2.(4) 3.(4) 4.(1)
5.(1) 6.(3) 7.(3) 8.(1)
9.(4) 10.(4)

1. (1) Samvat is any of the various Hindu calendars. In
India, there are several calendars in use. The Saka
Samvat is associated with 78 A.D; Gupta Samvat with
320 A.D; and Hijri Samvat with 622 A.D. The first
year of Hijri era was the Islamic year beginning in AD
622 during which the emigration of Muhammad from
Mecca to Medina, known as the Hijra, occurred. The
Gregorian calendar, also called the Western calendar
and the Christian calendar, is the internationally accepted civil calendar. It was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom the calendar was named, by a
decree signed on 24 February, 1582.

2. (4) The name ‘Mithila‘ goes back to Puranic times. It
occurs in the Mahabharata and in Pali literature. According to the Puranic tradition the name has been
derived from that of Mithi (son of Nimi) King of Ayodhya and grandson of Manu who founded a kingdom which was called Mithila after him. It is associated with Valmiki, Ashtavakra, Yajnavalkya, Udayana,
Mahavira, Kanada, Jaimini and Kapila as well as the
women philosophers, such as, Gargi, Maitreyi, Bharati and Katyayani. After the era of the Ramayana it is
said that the three seats of culture in Vedic period –
Kosala, Kasi and Videha – merged to form the Vajjians
confederacy and the centre of political gravity shifted
from Mithila to Vaishali.

3. (4) Ujjain (Avanti, Avantikapuri), is an ancient city of
Malwa region in central India, on the eastern bank of
the Kshipra River, today part of the state of Madhya
Pradesh. Avanti with its capital at Ujjaini, is mentioned in Buddhist literature as one of the four great
powers along with Vatsa, Kosala and Magadha.

4. (1) The archaeological record of the Indus civilization
provides practically no evidence of armies, kings,
slaves, social conflict, prisons, and other oft-negative
traits that we traditionally associated with early civilizations. If there were neither slaves nor kings, a more
egalitarian system of governance may have been practiced. Besides, compared to other ancient civilizations
the houses were of nearly equal size indicating a more
egalitarian social structure i.e. The Social System of
the Harappans was fairly egalitarian.

5. (1) The Vedic period (or Vedic age) was a period in
history during which the Vedas, the oldest scriptures
of Hinduism, were composed. The time span of the
period is uncertain. Philological and linguistic evidence
indicates that the Rig Veda, the oldest of the Vedas,
was composed roughly between 1700 and 1100 BCE,
also referred to as the early Vedic period. It is an
important source of information on the Vedic religion
and their Gods as well as presents a detailed account
of the life of the people at that time.

6. (3) Nalanda was an ancient centre of higher learning
in Bihar, which was a Buddhist centre of learning
from the fifth or sixth century A.D. to 1197 CE. Nalanda flourished between the reign of the Sakraditya
(whose identity is uncertain and who might have been
either Kumara Gupta I or Kumara Gupta II) and 1197
A.D, supported by patronage from the Hindu Gupta
rulers as well as Buddhist emperors like Harsha and
later emperors from the Pala Empire.

7. (3) Banabhatta was a Sanskrit scholar and poet of
India. He was the Asthana Kavi in the court of King
Harshavardhana, who reigned in the years 606–647
CE in north India. Bana’s principal works include a
biography of Harsha, the Harshacharita and one of
the world’s earliest novels, Kadambari. The other works
attributed to him is the Parvatiparinaya.

8. (1) Rajaraja Chola I created a powerful standing army
and a considerable navy, which achieved even greater success under his son Rajendra Chola I. One of
the last conquests of Rajaraja was the naval conquest
of the ‘old islands of the sea numbering 12,000’, the
Maldives. Chola Navy also had played a major role in
the invasion of Lanka.

9. (4) Potteries of the Harappan Civilization bring out the
gradual evolutionary trend in the culture. It is on the
basis of different types of potteries and ceramic art
from found over the different stages of the civilization, it can be said that Harappan culture was not
static and did not disappear suddenly. While showing signs of decay, in course of time it rejuvenated
itself by reviving some of the earlier ceramic traditions and evolving new ones in the transitional phase.

10. (4) In Jainism, Rishabh was the first of the 24
Tirthankaras who founded the Ikshavaku dynasty and
was the first Tirthankara of the present age. Because
of this, he was called Adinath. He is mentioned in the
Hindu text of the Bhagavata Purana as an avatar of
Vishnu. In Jainism, a Tirthankara is a human being
who helps in achieving liberation and enlightenment
as an “Arihant” by destroying all of their soul constraining (ghati) karmas, became a role-model and
leader for those seeking spiritual guidance.

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